DEF AT DIESEL FUELING SITES
Nearly all new diesel on-road vehicles
in North America use SCR technology,
and most large diesel fueling sites offer
DEF. Some 522 million gallons of DEF
were consumed in 2015.
Annual projections for the North
American DEF industry include 1. 25
billion gallons in 2020 and 1. 9 billion
gallons in 2025. For every 100 gallons of
diesel consumed by on-road vehicles, 3 to
4 gallons of DEF is used. (All SCR diesel
engine vehicles come equipped with 8- to
25-gallon DEF storage containers).
Public and private North American
diesel fueling sites dispense DEF: large
national truck stop chains; independently
owned truck stops; national, regional and
local freight companies; delivery services;
government; schools and universities; and
large retailers with their own ;eets.
More than 8,000 public and private
North American diesel fueling sites have
installed DEF mini-bulk/bulk aboveground or DEF underground bulk storage
and DEF dispensing systems.
THE USE OF DIESEL EXHAUST FLUID ;DEF; has ballooned in North America. To prevent DEF contamination, diesel
fueling sites that require DEF bulk storage
and remote dispensing system installations
should meet minimum requirements.
The Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) requires diesel-powered, on-road
and off-road vehicles and equipment to
meet speci;c exhaust emission standards.
Engine manufacturers have 1) optimized
designs to decrease emissions; and 2)
added high-ef;ciency aftertreatment
of diesel exhaust through selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) technology.
When DEF — 67. 5 percent pure water
and 32. 5 percent pure “urea” — is added to
a diesel engine’s exhaust stream, a catalytic
reaction reduces the emissions of nitrogen
oxides (NOX) and achieves as much as 90
percent NOX conversion ef;ciency. (Urea is
a solid, organic compound that is colorless, odorless, practically nontoxic and
highly water-soluble. It’s used widely in
fertilizers, and the chemical industry
uses urea as an important raw material.)
DEF SITE CONTAMINATION
DEF contamination in North
America has increased. The facts are:
1. DEF freezes at 11 F.
2. DEF shelf life depends on its
constant, ambient storage temperature: 36 months at 50 F, 18 months at
77 F, 12 months at 86 F and six
months at 95 F.
3. DEF is compatible with few materials. The only natural metal compatible with DEF is stainless
steel. Compatible, nonmetallic
materials free of additives include:
polyethylene (poly), used in aboveground DEF storage containers
and DEF underground piping
systems; and polyvinylidene ;uoride
(PVDF), used in DEF underground
4. DEF is corrosive to some materials.
This corrosion might contaminate the
5. Rapid growth in North American
DEF usage has created quality issues
in the supply chain. North American
at Diesel Fueling Sites
Thoughts and Observations
From a PEI Member