transition to a clean, low-carbon energy system and offer
• Zero local emissions.
• Improved air quality.
• High energy density.
• Long driving range and fast refueling.
Fuel cells use an electrochemical reaction to generate the
driving force for FCEVs.
The byproducts of this electrochemical process are heat,
electricity and water.
Fuel cells use a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to
separate hydrogen molecules into protons and electrons. The
protons pass through the PEM while the electrons are used
to generate electricity. The protons and electrons recombine
on the opposite side of the fuel cell along with oxygen from
the air to create water, which is emitted as droplets from
In other words, hydrogen gas is routed through a fuel cell
in the presence of air to generate electricity, which powers
HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE TODAY
California, which traditionally has driven clean transportation policy, leads the effort in laying the foundations of the
The state’s support for cleaner transportation began in 1967
when the California Air Resource Board (CARB) was created to
control air pollution from vehicles and other mobile sources of
Through CARB and its in-state programs, California
became the ;rst state to establish air-quality regulations.
Chris Ainscough, left, a senior engineer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, walks visitors through the national lab’s testing
procedures involving a Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell vehicle donated by the automaker. The tour was part of the 2017 Fuels Institute Annual Meeting in Denver.